Resources & FAQs

On this page, The Windward School endeavors to compile the most up-to-date facts and resources related to the remediation of language-based learning disabilities. We offer Windward parents, as well as teachers in the larger educational community, access to the research that informs the proven Windward methodology. We also hope to collect here a dynamic list of articles, books, research studies, blogs, advocates, organizations, etc. that are significant in the field.

Unless otherwise noted, the presence of an item on these lists should not imply that The Windward School endorses the argument or the findings contained therein. The Windward program and its methodology are driven by scientifically-proven research studies and rigorous meta-analyses. At the same time, we draw attention to researchers and studies when they are “cutting-edge” or controversial and worthy of paying attention.

If you feel that an important resource is missing from this page, please convey your suggestion to Jon Rosenshine, Associate Head of School. We would be glad to consider its inclusion.

Facts & Resources

Direct Instruction

Archer, A. L. (2011). Exploring the Foundations of Explicit Instruction. In C. A. Hughes (Ed.), Explicit instruction: effective and efficient teaching (pp. 1-22). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Birsch, J.R. (2011). Multisensory teaching of basic language skills. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Dispelling the Myths of Dyslexia - Online Webinar

The following link takes you to a webinar on "Dispelling the Myths of Dyslexia" presented by CMUThink - Carnegie Mellon University's intellectual experiences online. You will have to register your name and email address to access the webinar.

About "Dispelling the Myths of Dyslexia" webinar: Presented by Lori Holt, Professor of Psychology, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Professor Holt provides a first look at how the pioneering research taking place at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is influencing how we think about dyslexia.

Dyslexia, Language & the Brain

Birsh, J.R. (Eds.). (2011). Multisensory teaching of basic language skills (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul J. Brookes Publishing Co.

Catts, H.W., & Kamhi, A.G. (Eds.). (2011). Language and reading disabilities. Pearson.

Daheane, S. (2009). Reading and the brain. New York: Penguin Group.

Galaburda, A. (Ed.). (1989). From reading to neurons. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Moats, L.C., & Dakin, K.E. (2007). Basic facts about dyslexia and other reading problems. The International Dyslexia Association.

Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: a new and complete science-based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. New York: Vintage Books.

Vail, P.L. (1990). About dyslexia: unraveling the myth. Modern Learning Press/Programs for Education.

Wolf, M. (Ed.). (2001). Dyslexia, fluency, and the brain. (1st ed.). York Press Inc.

Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the squid: the story and science of the reading brain. New York: HarperCollins.

Executive Functioning and ADHD

Barkley, R.A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York: NY. Guilford Press.

Bertin, M. (2011). Family ADHD solution: a scientific guide to increasing your child’s attention while minimizing parents’ stress. St. Martin’s Griffin.

Bertin, M. (2015). Mindful parenting for ADHD: a guide to cultivating calm, reducing stress & helping children thrive. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Brown, T. (2008, February). Executive functions: describing six aspects of the syndrome. Attention, pp. 12-17.

Hallowell, E.M. (2010). Answers to distraction. New York, NY: Random House.

Hallowell, E.M. (2011). Driven to distraction. New York: Anchor Books.

Lyon, G.R., & Krasnegeor, N.A. (1995). Attention, memory, and executive function. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

Nadeau, K.G., (Ed.) (1995). A comprehensive guide to attention deficit disorder in adults: research, diagnosis, and treatment. New York: NY. Brunner/ Mazel, Inc.

Sheen, B. (2001). Attention deficit disorder. Lucent Books.

Silver, L. (Ed.) (2004). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a clinical guide to diagnosis and treatment. (3rd ed.). Arlington: VA. American Psychiatric Press.

Wodrich, D.L. (2000) Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: what every parent wants to know. (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Company, Inc.

Handwriting Instruction

Gentry, J. (2016, September 15). 5 Brain-Based Reasons to Teach Handwriting in School. Psychology Today.

James, K. & Engelhardt, L. (2012, December). The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 1(1), 32-42.

Konnikova, M. (2014, June 2). What’s Lost as Handwriting Fades. The New York Times.

Russell, J. (2016, August 30). “Why Handwriting Is Still Important.” The New York Times.

Sheffield, B. (1996). Handwriting: a neglected cornerstone of literacy. Annals of Dyslexia, 46, 21-34.

Orthography and Spelling Instruction

Joshi, R.M., Treiman, R., Carreker, S. & Moats, L.C. (2008-2009, Winter). How words cast their spell: spelling is an integral part of learning the language, not a matter of memorization. American Educator, 6(16), 6-43.

Reading Instruction

Aaron, P.G., Joshi, R.M, & Quatroche, D. (2008). Becoming a professional reading teacher. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

Adams, M.J. (1994). Beginning to read: thinking and learning about print: a summary. Cambridge: MA. MIT Press.

Adams, M.J. (2001). Alphabetic anxiety and explicit systematic phonics instruction: A cognitive science perspective. In Handbook of Early Literacy Research. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Collins Block, C., & Parris, S.R. (2015). Comprehension instruction: research-based practices (3rd ed.). New York: NY. The Guilford Press.

Ehri, L.C. (1995). Phases of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18(2), 116-125.

McCardle, P., & Chhabra, V. (2004). The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

McCutchen, D., Abbott, R.D., Green, L.B., Beretvas, S.N., Cox, S., Potter, N.S., Quiroga, T., & Gray, A.L. (2002). Beginning literacy: links among teacher knowledge, teacher practice, and student learning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(1), 69-86.

Moats, L.C. (1998). Teaching decoding. American Educator 22(1 & 2), 42-49, 95-96.

Moats, L. C. (1999). Teaching Reading is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do. American Federations of Teachers.

Moats, L.C. (2010). Speech to print: language essentials for teachers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H.Brookes Publishing.

Moats, L.C., Dakin, K.E., Johsi, R.M. (Eds.) (2012). Experts perspectives on interventions for reading: a collection of best-practice articles from the international dyslexia association. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Pugh, K., & McCardle, P., ed. (2009). How children learn to read: current issues and new directions in the integration of cognition, neurobiology and genetics of reading and dyslexia research. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Scarborough, H. (2001). The Scarborough Reading Rope [Chart].

Seidenberg, M. (2017). Language at the speed of sight. New York: NY. Basic Books.

Wolf, M (2010). "Cassandra's Thoughts about Reading and Time." Perspectives on Language and Literacy 36.1 39-40.

Wolf, M. (2016). Tales of literacy for the twenty-first century. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Uhry, J. K. (2013). The role of phonemic awareness in learning to read and spell successfully. Perspectives on Language and Literacy 39(1), 11-16.

Teacher Development and Professional Growth

Anders, P., Hoffman, J., & Duffy, G. (2000). Teaching teachers to teach reading: paradigm shifts, persistent problems, and challenges. In Handbook of Reading Research, Vol. III, 721-744. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bos, C., Mather, N., Dickson, S., Podhajski, B., & Chard, D. (2011) Perceptions and knowledge of preservice and inservice educators about early reading instruction. Annals of Dyslexia.

Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing professional practice: a framework for teaching. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Ehri, L.C. (1995). Teachers need to know how word reading processes develop to teach reading effectively to beginners. In Thinking and Literacy: The Mind at Work. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Learning First Alliance (2000). Every child reading: a professional development guide. Washington DC: Learning First Alliance.

Podhajski, B., Mather, N., Nathan, J., & Sammons, J. (2009). Professional Development in Scientifically Based Reading Instruction: Teacher Knowledge and Reading Outcomes. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42 (5), 403-417.

Snow, C.E., Griffin, P., & Burns, S. (Eds.) (2005). Knowledge to support the teaching of reading: preparing teachers for a changing world. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Vocabulary Instruction

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G. & Kucan, L. (2003). Bringing words to life: robust vocabulary instruction. 2nd ed. New York: The Guilford Press.

Blachowitz, C., & Fisher, P. (2014). Vocabulary lessons. Educational Leadership, 61(6), 66-69.

Ford-Connors, E. & Paratore, J. (2015, March). Vocabulary instruction in fifth grade and beyond: sources of word learning and productive contexts for development. Review of Educational Research, 85(1), 50-91.

MacDermott-Duffy, B. (2015). The windward vocabulary program: a research-based approach. The Beacon, 12-14.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Wright, T.S., & Neuman, S.B. (2015). The power of content-rich vocabulary instruction. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 41(3), 25-28.

Writing Instruction

Fredricksen, J. (2012, September). Are we learning the right lessons from New Dorp High School? The Atlantic.

Graham, S., Bollinger, A., Booth Olson, C., D’Aoust, C., MacArthur, C., McCutchen, D., & Olinghouse, N. (2012). Teaching elementary school students to be effective writers: A practice guide (NCEE 2012-4058). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools. A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Hochman, J., & Duffy, B. (2015) Effective writing instruction: time for a revolution. Perspectives on Language and Literacy.

Tyre, P. (2012, October). The writing revolution. The Atlantic.


Mathes, Patricia G., Ph.D., ed. Annals of Dyslexia. International Dyslexia Association.

Siegel, L. ed. Perspectives on Language and Literacy. International Dyslexia Association.

Research Institutes and Organizations

Center for Dyslexia & Creativity. Yale University.

Center for Reading and Language Research. Tufts University.

Child Mind Institute.

Haskins Laboratories. Yale University.

Haskins Training Institute. Haskins Laboratories. Yale University.

The Yale Reading Center. Yale University School of Medicine.

Websites and Advocacy Groups

New Panel

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What are language-based learning disabilities?

A: From the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website: "Language-based learning disabilities are problems with age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing. This disorder is not about how smart a person is. Most people diagnosed with learning disabilities have average to superior intelligence."

Q: What is dyslexia?

A: According to the 2002 definition as agreed by a committee of researchers and the International Dyslexia Association (IDA) board members:
“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge” (International Dyslexia Association, 2002)

Q: How does a language-based learning disability manifest itself in a child's development?

A: The answer to this question is taken in its entirety from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website: "Dyslexia has been used to refer to the specific learning problem of reading. The term language-based learning disability, or just learning disabilities, is better because of the relationship between spoken and written language. Many children with reading problems have spoken language problems.

The child with dyslexia has trouble almost exclusively with the written (or printed) word. The child who has dyslexia as part of a larger language learning disability has trouble with both the spoken and the written word."